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  • Writer's pictureRobin Alex Panicker

Implementing and Using Data Structures in Dart

Implementing and Using Data Structures in Dart

Dart is a versatile and powerful programming language that has gained popularity for building web, mobile, and desktop applications, thanks to the Flutter framework. To harness its full potential, it's essential to understand and implement various data structures.

In this blog, we'll explore some common data structures and demonstrate how to implement and use them in Dart.

Data Structures in Dart

Data structures are fundamental for organizing and managing data efficiently. Dart provides built-in support for a variety of data structures and allows you to create custom ones. Some common data structures in Dart include:

  1. Lists

  2. Sets

  3. Maps

  4. Queues

  5. Stacks

  6. Trees

  7. Graphs

We'll delve into each of these data structures, provide code samples, and discuss their use cases.


Lists in Dart are ordered collections of objects. They are similar to arrays in other languages and are incredibly versatile. Here's how to create and manipulate lists:

// Creating a List
List<int> numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

// Accessing elements
int firstNumber = numbers[0]; // Access the first element (1)

// Modifying elements
numbers[2] = 10; // Update the third element to 10

// Adding elements
numbers.add(6); // Add 6 to the end of the list

// Removing elements
numbers.remove(2); // Remove the element with value 2

// Iterating through a list
for (var number in numbers) {


Sets are unordered collections of unique elements. Dart's Set ensures that each element is unique, making them suitable for maintaining unique values:

// Creating a Set
Set<String> uniqueColors = {'red', 'blue', 'green'};

// Adding elements

// Removing elements

// Iterating through a set
for (var color in uniqueColors) {


Maps, also known as dictionaries, are collections of key-value pairs. In Dart, maps are implemented using the Map class:

// Creating a Map
Map<String, int> ages = {'Alice': 25, 'Bob': 30, 'Charlie': 22};

// Accessing values
int aliceAge = ages['Alice']; // Access Alice's age (25)

// Modifying values
ages['Bob'] = 31; // Update Bob's age to 31

// Adding new key-value pairs
ages['David'] = 28; // Add a new entry

// Removing key-value pairs
ages.remove('Charlie'); // Remove Charlie's entry

// Iterating through a map
ages.forEach((name, age) {
  print('$name is $age years old');


A queue is a data structure that follows the First-In-First-Out (FIFO) principle. In Dart, you can create a simple Queue data structure using a custom class:

class Queue<T> {
  List<T> _items = [];

  void enqueue(T item) {

  T dequeue() {
    if (_items.isNotEmpty) {
      return _items.removeAt(0);
    return null;

  int get length => _items.length;

You can then use this custom Queue class as follows:

var myQueue = Queue<int>();

print(myQueue.dequeue()); // 1

Queues are useful for tasks that require managing elements in the order they were added, such as task scheduling or breadth-first search in graphs.


A stack is another fundamental data structure that follows the Last-In-First-Out (LIFO) principle. While Dart doesn't provide a built-in Stack class, you can easily implement one using a custom class:

class Stack<T> {
  List<T> _items = [];

  void push(T item) {

  T pop() {
    if (_items.isNotEmpty) {
      return _items.removeLast();
    return null;

  int get length => _items.length;

You can use this custom Stack class as follows:

var myStack = Stack<int>();

print(myStack.pop()); // 3

Stacks are often used for tasks like managing function calls, parsing expressions, and implementing undo/redo functionality in applications.


Trees are hierarchical data structures with nodes connected by edges. They are commonly used for organizing data, searching, and representing hierarchical relationships. In Dart, you can create tree-like structures by defining custom classes that represent nodes. Here's a basic example of a binary tree:

class TreeNode<T> {
  T value;
  TreeNode<T> left;
  TreeNode<T> right;


You can then build a tree structure by connecting these nodes. Tree data structures come in various forms, including binary trees, AVL trees, and B-trees, each suited for specific tasks.


Graphs are complex data structures that consist of nodes and edges. They are used to represent relationships between objects and solve problems such as network routing, social network analysis, and more. In Dart, you can create a basic graph using a custom class to represent nodes and edges:

class Graph<T> {
  Map<T, List<T>> _adjacencyList = {};

  void addNode(T node) {
    if (!_adjacencyList.containsKey(node)) {
      _adjacencyList[node] = [];

  void addEdge(T node1, T node2) {
    _adjacencyList[node2].add(node1); // For an undirected graph

  List<T> getNeighbors(T node) {
    return _adjacencyList[node];

void main() {
  var graph = Graph<String>();


  graph.addEdge('A', 'B');
  graph.addEdge('A', 'C');
  graph.addEdge('B', 'D');
  print(graph.getNeighbors('A')); // [B, C]
  print(graph.getNeighbors('B')); // [A, D]

This is a basic implementation of an undirected graph in Dart. You can expand upon this to create more complex graphs and perform various operations.


Understanding and implementing data structures in Dart is essential for efficient and organized data manipulation in your programs.

Lists, Sets, and Maps are the built-in data structures that come in handy for most scenarios, but you can create custom data structures like Queues and Stacks when necessary. Trees and Graphs are more complex data structures that can be implemented through custom classes to solve specific problems.

With this knowledge, you'll be better equipped to tackle a wide range of programming challenges in Dart.

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In this blog we talk about iOS and Android app development technologies, languages and frameworks like Java, Kotlin, Swift, Objective-C, Dart and Flutter that are used to build mobile apps. Read articles from Finotes team about good programming and software engineering practices, testing and QA practices, performance issues and bugs, concepts and techniques. 

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